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Characteristics of Four Sources of New Documentary Hypothesis

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by Lien-yueh Wei

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J or Jahwist Source

 E or Elohist Source

D or Deuteronomist Source

P or Priestly Source

Time of Production

10th (-9th) century B.C.E.

 

9th -8th century B.C.E.

7th century B.C.E.

6th century B.C.E.

Representative Text

Narrative core of Genesis, Exodus, and Numbers

Genesis 12ff

Exodus, and Numbers

Deuteronomy

Leviticus, Genesis, Exodus, Numbers

Region of Affiliation

Southern Kingdom or Southern part of Palestine

 

northern Kingdom or northern part of Palestine

Jerusalem

Babylon/ post Exile

Name of God

LORD (YHWH)

GOD (Elohim)

LORD (YHWH)

GOD (Elohim)

Action of God

Anthropomorphic

Ex: regret & close the door

Godˇ¦s transcendence,

Avoid anthropomorphic

Express Godˇ¦s will through angle or a particular person (Moses)

Moses speaks for the LORD

God speaks from on high

Characteristic of Patriarchs

Obvious moral flaws

Ex: Abraham misrepresent his wife as his sister

Protect their moral character

Ex: explain Abraham did not misrepresent his wife as his sister

(No emphasis)

(No emphasis)

Theme

1)Human fail to keep covenant and god intervene for judgment and renewal

2) Human faithlessness and Godˇ¦s faithfulness

 

(No emphasis)

Theological formula: obedience bring blessing and disobedience bring curse.

Details of ritual and law

The tradition of priesthood and ceremony

Purpose

Godˇ¦s plan for Israel were being realized in the reign of David and Solomon

Godˇ¦s purpose for Israel transcend the reign of David and Solomon

1)Israel shall be faithful to God

2) Prophetic encouragement

1)Priests are the only intermediators between God and human

2) create the tradition of priesthood and ceremony

3) give certainty during the exile

Other Feature

Distinctive vocabularies

 

Sermonic form instead of narrative form

Support Aaron

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Bibliography

Berlin, Adele & Brettler, Marc Zvi, The Jewish Study Bible, (NY: Oxford University Express, 2004)

Frick, Frank S., A Journey through the Hebrew Scriptures, (CA: Thomson Learning, 2003).

Sasson, Jack, Lectures of ˇ§The Hebrew Bibleˇ¨ in Vanderbilt University Divinity School, 2004 Fall.

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