by Lien-yueh Wei





Terms and Names in the Hebrew Bible (II)




Terms & Names of Monarchy  




A judge of Israel.

    He built an altar to Lord, called “The Lord is Peace.”

    He broke Baal’s altar for God’s order.

    He tested God’s promise.

    He defeated Israel’s enemy, Midianites. (Judges 6)



She made a vow that if God gave her a son, she would dedicate her son to God, and would not use razor on his head.

    Then, God gave her a son, she call him “Samuel”. This name means “Because I asked the Lord for him”

    Samuel became a prophet of Israel, a former prophet in the Hebrew Bible. (1 Samuel 1-2)




    A prophet of David

    After David committing adultery and indirectly murder, God sent him to condemn David.

He used a metaphorical story to implied David’s adultery and murder.

David repented of his sins before him.

He also anointed Solomon king over Israel. (2 King)


Northern Kingdom

Jeroboam I

    The first king of Israel in 10th century, northern Kingdom.

    Because the successor of Solomon, Rehoboam, used a strict and cruel policy, Israelites rebelled against Rehoboam and made Jeroboam king over other ten Israel tribes.

    He created the northern kingdom, Israel. Its capital was Samaritan.

He was judged as a bad king in the Hebrew Bible.  (1 King)



    A king of Israel in 9th century, northern Kingdom.

    Jezebel, his wife, serves and worships Baal.

Elijah called him to repent. He died in a battle.

He was judged as a bad king.  (1 King)


The wife of the king, Ahab. She was famous about serving and worshiping Baal.

She built many altars of Baal and set many prophets of Baal.

    She wanted to kill Elijah after Elijah kill 450 prophets of Baal. (1 King)



    The last king of Israel, Northern Kingdom

    The king of Assyria and his army sieged Samaritan during his ruling period.

    Three years later, The king of Assyria destroyed Samaritan and exiled many people to other Assyrian cities.(722 B.C.E.)

    The king of Assyria also immigrated many gentiles from other cities to Samaritan. (2 King)



Southern Kingdom


    The son and successor of Solomon. The first king of Judah in 10th century after Davidic dynasty divided into two kingdom.

 Because he used a strict and cruel policy, Israelites rebelled against him and made Jeroboam king over other ten Israel tribes.



A king of Judah in 8th century, southern Kingdom.

He highly followed Mosaic law. He called Israelites who lived outside Jerusalem to go to the Temple and celebrate the Passover and other feasts.

A great crisis, the siege of Jerusalem by Assyria army ordered by the Assyrian king Sennacherib, occurred during his ruling period.

Then, Isaiah, an Israel’s prophet, told him to rely only on God, not on alliance or tribute.

The siege did not succeed and Jerusalem got peace in the end of this event.

He was judged as a good king.   (2 King &  2 Chronicle & Isaiah)



    A king of Assyria in 8th century. At that time, the Judah’s king is Hezekiah.

    He tried to conquered Judah by the siege of Jerusalem, but he did not succeed.

    The Hebrew Bible recorded that God help Hezekiah and sent his angle to destroy Sennacherib’s army. (2 Chronicle)



A king of Judah in 7th century, southern Kingdom.

    The high priest had found the Book of Law during his early ruling period.

    When he heard the word of the Book of Law, he decided to follow the law.

    He called people to Jerusalem, read all the word of “the Book of Covenant” (The origin of this phrase) to them, and renewed the covenant.

He was killed by the king of Egypt. (2 King)





    A king of Babylon in 6th century

    He siege Jerusalem during Judah king Jehoiachin.

    Jehoiachin surrendered to him. He exiled Judah’s ruling class and many people to Babylon (First exile).

    Then he made Hedekiah king of Judah.

Because Hedekiah rebelled against him, he siege Jerusalem again.

He destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple, and exiled all Israelites except the poorest people.

(587 B.C.E., 2 King)







  A governor of Judah.

  He was appointed by Persian king to govern Judah, a province of Persia.

  He continued to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple.

  The Temple was rebuilt and dedicated in 516 B.C.E. (about 70th year after the first one was destroyed) during his governing.

  This Temple called “second Temple.”



A king of Persia in 6th century.

He conquered most of the Near East, including Babylon.

He allowed the Jewish exile in Babylon to return to their homeland, the first group with the priest Shesbazzar, then with Zesubbabel and Joshua, then with Ezra, and then Nehemiah. (Ezra)


Cyrus Cylinder

    A document of 6th century issued by the Assyrian king Cyrus

    It shows Cyrus’s policies that allowed exile people to return to their homeland and to restore their religious cults.   




Terms & Names of Theology and Cult



An attempt to justify God’s action.

In the Book of Job, Job’s friends represent some popular theodicies in ancient Israel.

However, the Book refutes those theodicies and their viewpoints.

This word is from Leibniz’s book in 18th century.



the worship of natural phenomena



the worship of gods with human shapes and emotions



the worship of all gods through one



A nonhuman being have human characters. Canaanite gods are anthropomorphic while Egypt gods are theromorphic, which is represent as animals.


Ark (aron) of the covenant 

A box made of the particular wood for depositing the tablets, on which Ten Commandment was written. God’s told Israel the way and measure in detail to make an Ark in the Book of Exodus.


3rd Temple  

The Herod’s Temple. Herod’s rebuilding of the temple, with the enlargement of it, in the first century BCE is often called the third Temple. 




Terms & Names of Prophets and Prophecy



Study of the end times: A technical term is used to describe what will happen at the (hypothetical) “end.” It can be either an end of personal life or the world!


Former Prophets   

Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings


Latter Prophets    

3 major prophets and 12 minor prophets


Israel:  Hosea, Amos

Judah: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Micah

Exile and Yehud: Ezekiel, 2nd Isaiah -- Zechariah; Malachi; Daniel


Writing Prophets  

A small number of prophets who have books under their name in the Hebrew Bible; wrote in the 1st person, cf. latter prophets; the earliest: Amos


Rib, a covenant lawsuit

Rib, a Hebrew verb means “to plead a case.”  The form of this lawsuit has four parts: 1 call to order, 2 the plaintiff’s statement of his complain, 3 the defendant’s response, and 4 the “indictment”. This form was used in Chapter 6 of  the book of Micah.


Robert Lowth      

A bishop of 18th century. In his book, Lectures on the Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews, He defined three types of parallel: synonymous, antithetical and synthetic as the most distinctive feature of biblical Hebrew poetry.


Day of the Lord/ Day of YHWH

It is a time that God appears as a warrior, fighting against Israel or Israel’s enemies. Day of Lord mentioned in many prophetic books in the Hebrew Bible. The earliest text to mention this day is Amos 5.


Servant Song

    These poems are the best known parts of second Isaiah. There are four servant songs in second Isaiah: Ch 42, 49, 50, 52-53. The song in Ch52-53 was always used by Christianity to refer to Jesus’s suffering on the cross and His redemption for humans.


Proto-Isaiah/ “First” Isaiah

Son of Amoz, 8th century BCE court prophet and priest in Jerusalem (Isa 1-39); fall of Northern kingdom, Assyrian besiege of Jerusalem; central prophet,


Deutero-Isaiah / “Second Isaiah”      

Isa 40-55, exilic prophet; theme of suffering servant, monotheism: uniqueness the God.


Trito-Isaiah/ “Third Isaiah” 

Isa 56-66, post-exilic; restoration and final salvation.







A worldview that finds applicable meaning in old traditions.

Its words have hidden meanings.

There are many Apocalyptic narrative in the Book of Isaiah and Ezekiel.



A genre of literature

    It displays symbolic visions, especially the imminent destruction, judgment, and salvation of the world.

 In the Hebrew Bible, it was the secret and mystic revelations which was received from visionary experience

It was used in the Book of Isaiah and Ezekiel.

Mostly anonymous Jewish or Christian texts from around the 3rd c. bce to the 2nd c. ce.



tendency to believe that something is disclosing in front of you. 




Terms & Names of Law


Amphictyony  (近鄰同盟)

A form of social organization applied to explain the function of tribalism in the period of the tribal confederation. Each of 12 tribes was a caretaker of their central sanctuary regularly for one month in a year.



    The Jubilee year is to occur every fiftieth year. It was recorded in the Holiness code in   the Book of Leviticus.

    Its purpose is to cancel all debts, to free all slaves, and return lands to their original owner.



    kingship of YHWH; theos=deity and -cracy=power. The sovereign is God. The state and religion are in unity.

    In the Book of Ezekiel, Ezekiel highly advocates theocracy.


Levirate marriage


Casuistic law 

    A formula of law found throughout the ancient Neat East.

    This type of law is stated in the form: “If X occurs, and then Y will be the legal consequence.”

This type of law can be found in the Book of Covenant (Exodus) and The Law of Deuteronomy in the Hebrew bible.


Apodictic law 

A type of law which states absolutely, without any condition. This law is closely connected with Yahwistic faith. Apodictic Law is not common in other Near Eastern law. 





Jack Sasson, Lectures of “The Hebrew Bible” in Vanderbilt University Divinity School, 2004 Fall.

Frick, Frank S., A Journey through the Hebrew Scriptures, (C.A.: Thomson Learning, 2003).

Berlin, Adele & Brettler, Marc Zvi,The Jewish Study Bible, (N.Y.: Oxford University Express, 2004)



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