The Development of the Election
The main reason of the tension for the election of the Pope
between the church and the state is because both of its leaders want to
control the election.
(1) The theory of the church:
gave the highest power to Peter and Peter give it to his successor. As the
successors of Peter, bishops were higher than the king so that bishops can
choose the pope. Moreover, the church gives power to king for ruling the
affairs of the state (Two Words Theory). The election of pope is the affairs
of the church, not of the state. Hence, the church can choose the Pope by
(2) The theory of the king:
supported by lands, and Bishop received lands from the king as his vassal. Humans
were made as social beings. The king obtained his power from God through the
assignment of people. As a ruler, the king was exercising the power to
represent the people including Christian. Moreover, there was the king long
before there was the bishop or church in humans’ history. Thus, the king was
higher than the bishop and has power to choose Pope.
development and events of the election of the Pope
The church control basically the
election of the pope.
1. Henry III
discovered that there were three persons claiming as the Pope. He deposed all
three and nominated a series of reforming Pope. The king controls the election
2. Leo IX
forty cardinals, including bishops, priest, and deacons. They had
responsibility of electing the pope.
3. Nicholas II : Only the bishops had
4. Gregory VII
a conflict between Gregory VII and Henry IV regarding the election of the
pope. Although Henry used military force to make Gregory VII run away from
Roman, he did not succeed to control the election.
1. Synod of Worms
cardinals elected the pope. Then the king approved the candidate.
2. Revision of procedure
for each cardinal. Two-thirds elects and makes a pope.
controls the cardinals and the election of the pope. (Conciliarism) The
settling council of bishops tried to control the election and removal of Pope,
but it failed. Pope still controls the cardinals and the election.
Burns, Patout, Lectures of “The
Formation of Christian Tradition” in Vanderbilt Divinity school, 2004 Fall.