List of Church Fathers, Representative Works, and Brief Introduction


魏連嶽  撰寫彙編, Aug/2008

by Lien-yueh Wei, PhD (in Patristics), New College, University of Edinburgh

 1. 教父 (Fathers of the Church) 定義: 被早期教會公認在信仰、聖禮、教義及神學等方面有傑出貢獻的基督教思想家。在西方教會中,是指從使徒教父到 Isidore of Seville (d.636) 傑出思想家;在東方教會中,則是到 John of Damascus (d.750c) 傑出思想家

 2. 以下所列的教父名單、出生年代及相關資料主要參考Altaner, Berthold. Patrology. Trans. by H.C. Graef. Edinburgh: Nelson, 1958.Kelly, J.N.D., Early Christian Doctrines. London: A&C Black, 1958; NY: Continuum, reprint, 2003.Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. Ed. by Everett Ferguson. London: Routledge, 2nd edition, 1999.The Catholic Encyclopedia. NY: Encyclopedia Press, 1914.、以及 The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. by F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingstone. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 2005.

 3. 以下所列的教父名單主要是依照「教父姓氏之字母」作排序

 4. 出生年代後面加c則表示:  c 前面的年代乃是該教父的大約出生年代,而非其準確出生年代

 5. 出生年代後面加「s」則表示:  s 前面的年代數字至該數字後十年之間可能為該教父的大約出生時期。

 6. 出生日期若以單一數字後面加「xx」則表示: 只知道該教父的的出生世紀,但未知詳細年代。例如「2xx」表示該教父出生於第3世紀

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Name of Church Fathers



Repr. Works

Brief Intro.

Alexander of Alexandria




Bishop of Alexandria (312-328); excommunicated Arius and whose deacon was Athanasius; played a leading role in the Council of Nicaea   

Alexander of Lycopolis




a pagan who became a Manichaean and later a Christian; opposed Manichaeism

Ambrose of Milan



De Fide Resurrectionis, De Sacramentis, De Officiis Ministrorum, On Faith, On the Holy Spirit,

Bishop of Milan (374-397); was elected Bishop while he was still a catechumen; influenced Augustine to be converted to Christianity; one of the Four Great Doctors in the Western Church (other three: Gregory of the Great, Augustine, and Jerome); opposed Arianism; the first one who conveyed the ideas of Transubstantiation in Eucharist and original sin from Adam

Amphilochius of Iconium



Iambi ad Seleucum

Bishop of Iconium (373-); head of the Council of Side in 390 which excommunicated Messalians

Anastasius Sinaita



Hodegos (~Odhgo,j)

Abbot of the monastery of St Catherine on Mount Sinai; opposed monophysitism

Andrew of Caesarea



Commentary on the Book of Revelation

Bishop of Caesarea; using threefold interpretive model: historical, moral, and mystical

Andrew of Crete



Great Canon, Homilies

Bishop of Gortyna in Crete; hymn writer

Anthony the Great (of Egypt)




hermit; ascetic; organized his disciples into a community of hermits living under rule; support Athanasius in Arian controversy

Aphrahat (Aphraates)




ascetic; known as the Persian Sage; the first of Syriac Church Fathers

Apollinarius of Laodicea



Commentaries, De Unione Corporis et Divinitatis in Christo, Hymns, Sermons

Bishop of Laodicea; opposed Arianism; a leader of Apollinarianism; denied the full human nature in Christ (the presence of human mind or soul in Christ); his idea that no human subject in Christ; implied that Christ’s manhood was not complete  

Apollonius of Hierapolis



Defense of Faith, Against Pagans

Bishop of Hierapolis

Aristides the Athenian




a Christian apologist and philosopher; his idea that Christians had a fuller understanding of God than pagans or Jews

Aristo of Pella



Dialogue between Jason and Papiscus

Apologist; wrote Dialogue between Jason and Papiscus the first of the literary dialogues between a Jew and a Christian; provided an account about the destruction of Jerusalem under Hadrian in c135 




Adversus Nationes (or Adversus Gentes)

converted to Christianity by a dream; Lactantius’s teacher

Asterius of Amasea




Bishop of Amasea in Pontus




Against Arians, Life of Antony, Letters Concerning the Holy Spirit, On Incarnation

the leader of opposing Arianism; support homoousianism; by his conflict with Arianism he was oppressed or exiled in the reigned of Constantine and Constantius. His idea of the true deity of Son of God and the Holy Spirit, which was in defense of the faith proclaimed at the Council of Nicaea, triumphed over Arianism at the Council of Constantinople in 381; Bishop of Alexandria (328-373); one of the Four Great Doctors in the Eastern Church (other three: Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and John Chrysostom)

Athenagoras of Athens



Legatio pro Christianis,  Supplication,

the Christian philosopher of Athens; the first one to use a philosophical defense of the doctrine of God as Three in One





Patriarch of Constantinople (406-); opponent of John Chrysostom 

Augustine of Hippo



Confessiones, Contra Iulianum, De Anima et Eius Origine, De Civitate Dei, De Cura pro Mortuis Gerenda, De Genesi ad Litteram Libri Duodecim, De Quantitate Animae, De Trinitate, Enarrationes in Psalmos, Sermones Ad Populum

Bishop of Hippo (395-430); one of the Four Great Doctors in the Western Church (other three: Ambrose of Milan, Gregory of the Great, and Jerome); gives the Western tradition its mature and final expression; his idea that faith must precede understanding (Anselm follows this idea); Trinitarian Orthodoxy: 1. Divine nature should be express in the singular, 2. Three Persons in one essence or substance, 3. The distinction of three Persons is grounded in their mutual relation within in the Godhead, 4. The three Persons are real and subsistent relation, 5. The Spirit is the Spirit of Father and son, 6. The Spirit is the mutual love of Father and Son, the consubstantial bond which unites Father and Son, 7. Both Son and Spirit are from Father. It does not mean that God has two sons, because Son is begotten and Spirit proceeds; Human Condition and God’s Grace: 1. Human have original sin transmitted from Adam through their parents, 2. Human, except Adam and Eve, do not have ability and freedom to choose good or do good work without God’s grace, 3. God knows who will accept his grace of salvation in advance; then God gives him/her the grace that they cannot reject. It means that God’s grace will not in vain in salvation, 4. Because of the God’s grace, human can choose to accept God’s grace. Therefore, human do not have attribution on the salvation, 5. God has mercy to those whom He wants to save by His own will. Beside His mercy, no one can be saved by oneself or other ways. This is Augustine’s Predestination and Fatalism.

Aurelius of Carthage  




presides over many ecclesiastical councils; admired by Augustine of Hippo




Epistles, Mosella

Latin poet and rhetorician; tutor to the future emperor Gratian;

Avitus of Vienne



Contra Eutychianum, De Spiritalis Historiae Gestis,

Bishop of Vienne (c490-518); advocate of the movement for ecclesiastical union of Gaul with Rome;




Epistle of Barnabas

a Jewish Levite of Cyprus; one of the earliest Christian disciple at Jerusalem; called an Apostle in Acts 14:14; introduced Paul to Apostles; martyred at Salamis; founder and the first Bishop of the Church of Milan; Apostolic Father

Basil the Great (of Caesarea)



Against Eunomius, Epistulae, Homiliae in Hexaemeron , On the Holy Spirit

Bishop of Caesarea (370-379); the elder brother of Gregory of Nyssa and St. Macrina; established hospitals and hostels for the poor; one of the Four Great Doctors in the Eastern Church (other three: Athanasius, Gregory of Nazianzus, and John Chrysostom); the leader of three Cappadocian Fathers (with Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa); support Nicene Creed and opposed Arians  

Bede the Venerable



Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Explanatio Apocelypsis, Expositio Actuum Apostolorum et Retractatio, Vita Metrica Sancti Cuthberti Episcopi

the foremost and most influential scholar from England; Doctor of the Church   

Benedict of Nursia



Rule of St Benedict

Patriarch of Western monasticism; known for his Rule for his monks;

Boethius, Severinus



Consolation of Philosophy

a philosopher and consul; influenced by Neoplatonists; his definition of person as the individual substance of a rational nature; his definition of eternity as the simultaneous and perfect possession of limitless life; his idea that through philosophy the soul attains to knowledge of the vision of God; canonized as St Severinus

Caesarius of Arles




Bishop of Arles (502-); composed two monastic rules, one for monks and one for nuns;  

John Cassian



Conlationes, De Incarnatione Domini, De Institutis Coenobiorum

entered a monastery at Bethlehem; studied monasticism in Egypt from c385; influenced by Evagrius Ponticus and John Chrysostom; a deacon in the church of Constantinople in c404; a close friend of Leo, the future Pope; opposed Nestorius by his work De Incarnatione Domini; established two monasteries near Marseilles in c415; wrote De Institutis as rules for monastic life which was used by St Benedict; parts of his work Conlationes expressed disagreement with Augustine’s doctrine of Grace, and thus his position was called Semipelagianism; regarded as a saint in the Eastern Church, but never canonized in Western Church    




Historia Gothorum (lost); Historia Ecclesiastica Tripartita

Roman senator; established the monastic community of Vivarium near Naples, built up a library where collected many important manuscripts and biblical commentaries

Chromatius of Aquileia




mediated between Jerome and Rufinus

Clement of Alexandria



Paedagogus, Protrepticus, Stromata

Hellenic Theologian; Origen’s Teacher; believing in Christianity the fulfillment of Greek philosophy; his theology is indebted to platonic philosophy and Gnosticism   

Clement of Rome



1 Clement

Bishop of Rome (88c-97c); his writings provides important description of ministry and history in his time and martyrdom of St. Peter and Paul; Apostolic Father

Columba of Iona




trained in Irish monasteries; founded a monastery at Iona; anointed Gabrain as King of Scots of Dalriada; established many churches in Ireland and Scotland; known as “Dove of the Church”


2xx /4xx

2xx /4xx

Apologeticum, Carmen, Instructions

Christian Latin poet

Cyprian of Carthage



Ad Quirinum, De Catholicae Ecclesiae Unitate, De Lapsis, De Opere et Eleemosynis, Epistulae

two years after his conversion (from a pagan rhetorician) he was elected Bishop of Carthage (c248-258); organized charitable works; believing baptism outside the Church invalid; demanding the rebaptism of schismatics; wrote on almsgiving as a means of obtaining grace; martyr

Cyril of Alexandria



Apology against Julian the Apostate, Commentaries, De Trinitate, Epistles, Thesaurus de Trinitates

Bishop of Alexandria (412-444); Athanasius’s student; opposed Nestorius; outstanding teaching about the person and saving work of Christ; his idea that Christ is God and man at once, united without coalescence; Christ is one subject (hypostasis) out of two natures; God died humanly on the cross; his Second Letter to Nestorius was made by the Third General Council (in Ephesus 431 ) as its authoritative interpretation of Christology; Doctor of the Church;

Cyril of Jerusalem



Catechetical Lectures

Bishop of Jerusalem (c349-);; three banishments because of opposing Arianism; Doctor of the Church

Damasus I



(parts of) Decretum Gelasianum

Pope (366-384); active in suppressing heresy including Arianism and Donatism; commissioned his secretary St Jerome to revise the Latin biblical text; established monuments of martyrs and adorned their tombs

Didymus the Blind



Adversus Eunomium, Commentaties, (the fourth and fifth books of Basil of Caesarea’s)

blind from infancy; assigned by Athanasius to the direction of Catechetical School at Alexandria; Jerome and Rufinus’s teacher; opposed Arianism and Macedonian heresy; supported Origen’s teachings and thus condemned at the Fifth Ecumenical Councils with Origen in 533

Diodore of Tarsus




Bishop of Tarsus; A founder of Antioch School, which opposed Alexander School on Christology; teacher of John Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia; literal and historical exegesis; opposed allegorism; opposed Apollinarius; insisting on the complete humanity of Christ; one of the leading figure at the Council of Constantinople (381);

Dionysius of Corinth




Bishop of Corinth; his letter to the church of Rhossus forbidding the reading of the Gospel of Peter is very important information of history of the canonization of Scripture

Dionysius of Rome

1xx /2xx



Pope (259-268); opposed Sabellianism; sent help to the church of Caesarea when it was invaded

Dionysius of Alexandria



De Natura

Bishop of Alexandria (247c-264c); Origen’s student; re-admitted the lapsed to the Church; supported, with Pope Stephen, not to re-baptize heretics and schismatics; opposed Sabellianism; accused of tritheism by Dionysius of Rome; his work De Natura is the earliest extant Christian opposition of Epicureanism; literal interpretation to the Book of Revelation


     the Areopagite



Celestial Hierarchy, Divine Names, Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, Mystical Theology, Epistles

mystical theologian; combined Neoplatonism with Christianity; his idea that the union of the whole created order with God; this union is the final stage of threefold process of purification, illumination, and perfection (or union); God is beyond symbols and concepts; influenced greatly the Christian mystical tradition

Ephraem the Syrian



Carmina Nisibena, De Nativitate, Hymns

wrote his works in Syriac, but soon translated into Greek and Latin; established a Bible and Theology school as well as women’s choirs to sing his hymns at Edessa; his poetry greatly influenced Greek hymnography; Doctor of the Church

Epiphanius of Salamis



Ancoratus ( vAgkurwto,j), Panarion

Bishop of Salamis (367-); supported the faith of Nicaea; attacked every heresy known from the beginning of the Church by his work Panarion; active in Apollinarianism and Melitian controversy; joined Jerome in his attack on Origenism; opposed the use of images in Christian worship  

Eucherius of Lyon



De Contemptu Mundi, De Laude Heremi, Passio Agaunensium Martyrum

Bishop of Lyon (434c-), advocate of asceticism 




Life of St Severinus

Abbot of Lucullanum; compiled a collection of extracts from works of Augustine which was popular in the Middle Ages; wrote rules of monks

Eusebius of Caesarea



Contra Marcellum, De Ecclesiastica Theologia, Historia Ecclesiastica, Onomastico, Preparation for the Gospel, Theophany, Vita Constantini,

Bishop of Caesarea (315-); Father of Church History; Pamphilus’s student; defense of Origen’s teaching; opposed Sabellianism; active in Arian controversy; supported Arius and thus condemned at the Council of Antioch (324/5); reinstated by Constantine at the Council of Nicaea (325); active until died

Eusebius of Emesa




Bishop of Emesa, refused to fill the see of Alexandria when Athanasius was deposed in 339

Eusebius of Vercelli




first Bishop of Vercelli (340-); opposed Arianism; exiled after the Synod of Milan; translated Eusebius of Caesarea’s commentaries into Latin;

Evagrius Ponticus (Pamphilius) 345/6 399 De Diversis Malignis Cogitationibus, De Octo Spiritibus Malitiae, Rerum Monachalium Rationes, Monks, Praktikos. A student of Gregory of Nazianzus. Play a central role in the history of Christian spirituality. Influence Palladius, Cassian abd Maximus the Confessor. Condemned for his Origenistic views.





Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia (230c-268); admired Origen; oppose Pope Stephen’s idea that baptism outside the Church is still valid; supported Cyprian’s idea that baptism valid only performed in the Church and thus that heretics and schismatics must be re-baptized; presided the first of the Synod of Antioch 

Fulgentius of Ruspe



Epistles, Homilies

Bishop of Ruspe in North Africa (507c-); resigned the Roman civil service for monastic life; opposed Arianism and Pelagianism; follower of Augustine’s teaching; banished to Sardinia with 60 other Bishops by Arian king Thrasamund

Gaius (Caius)



Dialogue against Proclus

Roman presbyter; orthodox Churchman; opposed Montanist; rejected the Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation as canon of Scripture and thus was opposed by Hippolytus 

Gennadius of Massilia



De Viris Illustribus

presbyter at Massilia; historian and Semipelagian; his work De Viris Illustribus (continuation of Jerome’s book of the same name) contains 101 notices of ecclesiastical writers in the East and West, most in his times

Gregory of Nazianzus



De Rebus Suis, De Seipso et De Episcopis, De Vita Sua, Epistulae, Five Theological Orations, Orationes  

After studied at university of Athens, adopted the monastic life; Bishop of Constantinople (379-381); made a great influence in restoring the faith of Nicaea at the Council of Constantinople (381); one of the Four Great Doctors in the Eastern Church (other three: Athanasius, Basil the Great, and John Chrysostom); the second of three Cappadocian Fathers (with Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa); one of three Orthodox saints honored with the title The Theologian

Gregory of Nyssa



Against Eunomius, Catechetical Oration, De Anima et Resurrectione, De Hominis Opificis, De Virginitate, Encomium in XL Martyres, Vita Sanctae Marcrine

Bishop of Nyssa (371c-); the younger brother of Basil the Great; exegetical works and eschatology (believing both the souls in hell and the devils will return to God) were influenced by Origen; supported the faith of Nicaea; opposed Arianism and thus was deposed from 376-378; played an important role at the Council of Constantinople (381); supported that Christ is one Person in two natures; the third of three Cappadocian Fathers (with Basil the Great and Gregory of Nazianzus)  

Gregory of Tours



De Virtutibus Sancti Martini, Historia Francorum, Miraculorum Libri

Bishop of Tours (573-); born in Gaul; wrote early history of France (from the Creation to 591); his writing about France history was honest but untidy

Gregory Thaumaturgus




Bishop of Neocaesarea; Origen, his teacher, influence him to be converted to Christianity; after returned to Neocaesarea, converted its pagan population; because of rich legends of miracles attributed to him, his was called “Thaumaturgus (the wonder worker)”; opposed Paul of Samosata and Sabellianism at the first Synod of Antioch

Gregory the Great



Dialogues, Homilies, Moralia in Job, Regula Pastoralis

Bishop of Rome (590-604); promoter of monasticism; founded seven monasteries (6 in Sicily and 1 in Rome); powerful civil administration and military defense of Italy during the invasion of the Lambards; conducted a great amount of charity works; upheld the supremacy of the Roman see; great success in his mission to England (which began due to a encounter with a Saxon slave in the market); his theology shows the ideal of contemplative life; supported the veneration of relics; influenced the doctrine of purgatory and the development of liturgical music (“Gregorian Chant” was linked to his name although it was formed long after his pontificate); made important change in liturgy; one of the Four Great Doctors in the Western Church (other three: Ambrose of Milan, Augustine, and Jerome)

Hegesippus of Palestine



Hypomnemata (~upomnh,mata)

a Jewish convert; opposed Gnostics; wrote succession list of early Bishops of Rome (down to Anicetus, died c168) which probably was the earliest list of Roman Bishops 




The Satire of Hermias (or Mockery of the Heathen Philosophers)

Christian philosopher who satirized pagan philosophers and their opinions on the nature of God, the soul and the world

Hesychius of Jerusalem



Homilies, Church History (lost)

a monk, then a presbyter at Jerusalem; supported Cyril of Alexandria’s view in Nestorian controversy; opposed Theodore of Mopsuestia, Manichees, Arians and Apollinarians

Hilary of Poitiers



De Synodis, De Trinitate Libri Duodecim, Opus Historicum,  

Bishop of Poitiers, French (353-); opposed Arianism and thus was condemned at the Synod of Biterrae (356) and exiled by emperor Constantius; “Athanasius of the West”; the most respected Latin theologian in his age;  the earliest known hymn writer in the West; Doctor of the Church

Hippolytus of Rome



Refutatio Omnium Haeresium, Commentarius in Danielem, The Apostolic Tradition

Bishop of Rome; wrote The commentary of Daniel, the first orthodox Bible commentary book in Christianity history, and The Apostolic Tradition, recorded various rituals, including baptism and Eucharist

Ignatius of Antioch



Epistolae Supposititiae

the second (or third) Bishop of Antioch, the successor of St Peter; opposed Docetism and claiming the reality of both Christ’s divinity and humanity; wrote seven letters while was taken to Roman for trial; his letters provided important information regarding the office of Bishop and promoted the significance of the Bishop see (e.g. Eucharist and baptism cannot function without Bishop who has been appointed by Christ); nothing is known of the office of Bishop prior to Ignatius; his words in letters were quoted by church fathers; his letters were widely circulated in Christian community; desire for martyrdom; on the way to martyrdom from Antioch to Rome he wrote letters to the Church of Rome, bagging them not to deprive him of impending martyrdom by intervention; greatly honored by Polycarp; Apostolic Father




Adversus Haereses, Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching

Bishop of Lyons (c178); the Father of Catholic dogmatics; Tertullian’s teacher; in his age, Gnosticism was a serious threat to Christianity; his work Adversus Haereses was mainly an attack of Gnostics, particularly Valentinus; valued theological tradition in the Church; emphasizing Christian Monotheism (e.g. the unity of Father and Son in the work of redemption); developed the doctrine of “recapitulation” of human evolution in Incarnate Christ; claiming the co-ordinate authority of four Gospels

Isaac of Nineveh




Bishop of Nineveh (from c 676); after five months as Bishop, he retired from the see to live a life of solitude; his ascetic writings were translated into Greek, Arabic, and Ethiopic, and selected homilies into Latin; 

Isidore of Pelusium




during the Third Council of Ephesus, corresponded with Cyril of Alexandria; admired Cappadocian Fathers and John Chrysostom; adopted Christology of Alexandria but practiced literally and historically biblical interpretations of Antioch; honored as teacher of spiritual life 

Isidore of Seville



Chronica Moiora; De Ecclesiastics Officiis, De Naura Rerum, De Viris Illustribus, Etymologiarum, Historia Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum, Sententiae, Synonyma,

Bishop of Seville (c600-); presided the second Council of Seville (619) and the fourth Council of Toledo (633), which dealt with monastic discipline, clerical education, and liturgical uniformity as well as promoted a close relation between church and state; made a great influence on the clerical scholars and the churches in Spain as well as on culture and education of west medieval Europe; his encyclopedic work Etymologiarum (in 20 books) was extremely popular in the Middle Age and provided valuable source for learning; his work Historia Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum was primary source for Spanish history; Doctor of the Church; the last of the Fathers of the Western Church

Jacob of Sarug (Serugh)



Epistles, Homilies, Hymns

Bishop of Batnae, Sarug (519-521); called “the Flute of the Holy Spirit” because of his homiletical writings

Jerome (/Eusebius Hieronymus)



Apologia contra Rufinum, Commentariorum in Danielem, Epistolae, Vita Sancti Hilarionis, Vita Sancti Pauli Eremitae, Vulgate

after having a dream, then fully devoted himself to Christ faith and became a hermit in the Syrian desert where he studied Hebrew; Pope Damascus’s secretary from 382; requested by Pope Damascus, he revised the Old Latin version of the Bible; he then translated most of Scripture into vulgar Latin; his translation thus named Vulgate, which became most widely used in the West and the Bible of the Latin church from the early Middle Ages until the Second Vatican Council (1962-5); a abbot of a men’s monastery at Bethlehem from 386 to death; advocated extreme asceticism; one of the Four Great Doctors in the Western Church (other three: Ambrose of Milan, Gregory of the Great, and Augustine); painted as a bishop with a red clothes and a lion under his feet on Christian art works after 13th century.

John Chrysostom



Ad Theodorum Lapsum, Homiliae de Statuis, Homiliae in Acta Apostolorum, Homiliae in Epistulam I & II ad Corinthios, Homiliae in Epistolam ad Romanos, Homiliae in Genesim, Homiliae in Johnnem, Homiliae in Matthaeum

Bishop of Constantinople (398-); a student of Diodore of Tarsus, the leader of School of Antioch; a hermit (c373-c381) practicing austerity; named “Chrysostom (golden-mouthed)” because of his outstanding work of preaching which mainly concerned with the moral reformation of the nominal Christians; After becoming a Bishop of Constantinople in 398, started reforming the city, especially the corruption of court and clergy; accused of sheltering Tall Brothers who fled from Egypt after the condemnation of Origenism, and thus condemned and removed from the see at Synod of Oak (403); despite the support of Pope Innocent I, people of Constantinople, and the entire Western Church, he was still exiled by his enemies, particularly Empress Eudoxia; died in forced travelling on foot in exile in severe weather with feeble health; the greatest of Christian Bible commentator; one of the Four Great Doctors in the Eastern Church (other three: Athanasius, Basil the Great, and Gregory of Nazianzus)

John Climacus



Ladder of Divine Ascent

Abbot at Sinai; his ascetic work Ladder of Divine Ascent was an influential in the eastern church

John of Damascus



Apostolic Discourses, Fountain Head of Knowledge, Hiera (Sacra Parallela), Homilies 

resigned his office in c706 and became a monk near Jerusalem and then a priest; a strong supporter of images and resister of the Iconoclastic policy issued by emperor Leo the Isaurian; then anathematized at the Iconoclastic council (754); against Nestorians, monophysites, monothelites and Muslim fatalism; offered the first account by a Christian theologian concerning Islam as a heresy; drawing the works of early Church Fathers, he wrote the fundamentals of Christian faith, including on God, Trinity, Christology, creation, human nature, providence, prayer, Sacraments, Scriptures, and Last Things; his works were a primary resource later theology and the Greek dogmatic tradition; his greatest was probably his liturgy poetry; Doctor of the Church; the last of the Fathers of the Eastern Church

Julianus Pomerius



The Contemplative Life

a ascetical priest at Gaul; Caesarius of Arles’s teacher; his work The Contemplative Life presents the ideal of Christian life and was popular in the Middle Ages 

Julius Africanus, Sextus



Chronicles, Epistles

played an important role in establishing the new public library at the Pantheon, Rome; corresponded with Origen and Aristides; his Chronicles (a history of the world to 217) affinities to chiliasm and expresses that Christ was born in year 5500 (counted from the creation) and would returned in the year 6000; his Chronicles partly preserved in Eusebius’s Chronicles

Justin Martyr



First Apology, Second Apology, Dialogus cum Tryphone Judaeo

converted from pagan philosopher to Christianity in c130; a philosophical teacher teaching Christian faith from c135 at Ephesus; opened a Christian school at Rome in which Tatian was one of students; his apologetical works mainly argued that Christianity was a true philosophy showing the whole truth; his First Apology addressed to Emperor Antoninus Pius and his adopted sons, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus; his Second Apology, addressed to Roman senate; created a formula of Trinity (God is sun and Christ is sunshine but Christ is not equal to God, is under God); according to an official court report, he was scourged and beheaded due to being denounced as a Christian and refusing to offer sacrifice to Roman gods





a Spanish priest; a Christian Latin poet; his poetic work Evangeliorum writing Life of Christ; this work was probably the first Christ epic which was popular throughout the Middle Ages




De Ave Phoenice, De Opificio Dei, Divinae Institutiones, De Ira Dei, De Mortibus Persecutorum

Arnobius’s student; appointed as Diocletian’s teacher of Latin rhetoric, but lost the post during Diocletian’s persecution of Christians in c303; emperor Constantine made him tutor to his eldest son Crispus in Gaul; his work Divinae Institutiones offered a philosophy of religion and was the systematic account of the Christian attitude to life in Latin; his work De Mortibus Persecutorum describes the horrible deaths of all persecutors and also gives the earliest (survived) report about Constantine’s famous dream by which he received

God’s instruction to mark a Christian symbol on his soldiers’ shields for the decisive battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312; was called “the Christian Cicero” by the humanists of the Renaissance who showed a special favor on Lactantius’s works 

Leo I (Leo the Great)



Epistles, Homilies

Pope (440-); opposed Pelagianism while as a Roman deacon; promoted the power of central government of the Church by claiming the supremacy of Pope was from Divine and Scripture authority; a rescript by Valentinian III recognized his jurisdiction over all the Western province; the Council of Chalcedon (451) accepted his Tome (Epistola Dogmatica) as a standard of orthodox Christology; his political prestige was enhanced by persuading the Hunds to withdraw (452) and securing concessions from Vandals who took Rome (455); Doctor of the Church

Leontius of Byzantium



Contra Nestorian et Eutychianos

a monk of Palestine supported Chalcedonian Christology; a dyophysite and opposed monophysites;

Lucian of Antioch




a presbyter and an influential teacher of Antioch whose students included Arius and Eusebius of Nicomedia; his Subordinationist teaching was probably the primary source of Arian doctrine; a editor of a revised text of Septuagint which became the standard Old Testament text in Syria, Asia Minor, and Constantinople; 

was martyred at Nicomedia in 312





Bishop of Cagliari in Sardinia; fiercely opposed Arianism and defended Athanasius at the Council of Milan in 354; was banished to Palestine and then Egypt by emperor Constantius II, a supporter of Arians

Macarius of Alexandria




a Egyptian hermit lived near St Anthony; a ordained priest; was persecuted by Arians

Macarius the Great (of Egypt)



Spiritual Homilies

established a monastery in the Desert of Secete which became an important center of monasticism; influenced by St Anthony





A presbyter in Antioch; head of a Hellenic rhetorical school at Antioch; wrote the letter denouncing Paul of Samosata as a heretic

Marius Mercator




Augustine’s disciple; opposed Pelagianism, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Nestorian;

Martin of Braga



Capitula Martini, De Ira, Epistles, Formula Vitae Honestae, Sententiae Patrum Aegyptiorum

a founder and abbot of a monastery at Dumio, Spain; Bishop of Braga (c570-); presided at the second Council of Braga (572); promoted the cult of St Martin of Tours in Spain; translated saying of Desert Fathers from Greek into Latin for his monks; was influenced by John Cassian  

Martin of Tours




as still a catechumen, gave half of his only garment (a cloak) to the poor man; that night in his dream Martin saw the appearance of the Lord Christ who dressed in Martin’s garment and honored Martin’s behavior; a hermit established a monastery at Liguge; practiced and promoted monasticism; evangelized the countryside; a well-known holy man and healer and thus elected as Bishop of Tours (317c-); Gregory of Tours wrote Martin’s miracle works at his shrine by his relics; a patron saint of France

Martyios (Sahdona)



Book of Perfection

a monk; became Bishop of Mahoze; was twice expelled because of his heretic teaching on Christology; his work Book of Perfection expresses asceticism and monastic ideal   

Maximus of Turin




Bishop of Turin; a preacher who made use of allegory; his sermons were circulated in medieval homiliaries 

Maximus the Confessor



Ambigua, Capita de Caritate, Mystagogia, Questiones ad Thalassium,

a Byzantine theologian; resigned the post of Imperial Secretary under the emperor Heraclius and became a monk in c614; opposed monothelites and monophysites; was exiled in c635 due to violation of the emperor’s decree of silence in the matter of Christ’s will; his tongue and right hand were cut off in c662 and then was exiled because of his refusal to compromise his dyothelite position; made a great influence on subsequent Byzantine theology and monastic practice

Melitius of Antioch




appointed Bishop of Antioch in 360 but was exiled by emperor Constantius II (a supporter of Arianism) immediately after gave his inaugural sermon which clearly showed his anti-Arianism position; restored to the see in 362 during Julia tenure; was banished twice under the Arian emperor Valens; restored in 378 and presided at the Council of Constantinople (381), during which he died; the Melitian schism in Antioch was a dispute between Melitius and his rival orthodox party, Paulinus (consecrated by Lucifer of Cagliari and supported by Athanasius) and his followers who questioned Melitius’s theology; both groups had their own Bishops after the schism for many until the death of Melitius 

Melito of Sardis



Apology, On the Pasch (Peti, Pa,sca)

Bishop of Sardis in Asia Minor; anti-Judaism; an supporter of Quartodeciman practice and orthodox Christology; described Christ as by nature God and Man; wrote apology addressed to emperor Marcus Aurelius; influenced Irenaeus and Tertullian   

Methodius of Olympus



Symposium (Sumpo,sion), On Free Will, on the Resurrection

Bishop of Olympus in Lycia; an opponent of Origen; death in the Diocletianic persecution;

(Marcus) Minucius Felix




an Latin apologist; wrote Octauius in elegant Latin to attack pagan mythology and defend Christianity;

Moses Khorenac’i



History of Armenia

an historian of Armenia and the Armenian church; known as the father of Armenian national history

Nectarius of Constantinople




Bishop of Constantinople (381-397); was selected by Theodosius I in 381 to succeed Gregory of Nazianzus in the imperial see while unbaptized; became Bishop after baptism and presided over the final stage of the second Oecumenical Council

Niceta (Nicetas) of Remesiana



Diversis Appellationibus, De Ratione Fidei, De Spiritu Sancto, De Vigiliis, Explanatio Symboli, 

Bishop of Remesiana (370-414c); opposed Arianism and the Pneumatomachi; his work was a primary source for the history of the Apostles’ Creed 

Nilus of Ancyra



De Monachorum, De Voluntaria Paupertate, Epistles

Bishop of Ancyra; a disciple of John Chrysostom and founder of a monastery near Ancyra; his letters provide information about the survival paganism  

Nonnus of Panopolis



Paraphrasis in Iohannem

a Christian poet from Panopolis




De Trinitate, Epistles, On Jewish Meats, On Public Shows, On the Advantage of Christianity 

a Roman presbyter and a counter Bishop in Rome; his work De Trinitate was a theologically unequaled work in the west before 350; Novatianism came from his view that the holiness of the Church would be stained by permitting those who had compromised or apostatized to return; his view was supported by Antioch but rejected by Dionysius of Alexandria; a martyr under Valerian persecution (257-8)





author of the earliest extant Greek commentary on the Book of Revelation which does not mentions earlier commentaries and which earned him the names “Rhetor“ and “Philosopher”; this commentary views the Book of Revelation as a divinely inspired canonical Book

Optatus of Milevis



Against the Donatists

Bishop of Milevis in North Africa; wrote Against the Donatists, from which Augustine took many ideas when he opposed Donatists;




Contra Celsum, De Principiis, Epistula ad Africanum, Hexapla, Homiliae in Exodum, Homiliae in Genesim, In Canticum Canticorum, In Ieremiam, On Prayer, Exhortation to Martyrdom

practiced a strictly ascetical life of fasting, vigils, and voluntary poverty; mutilated genital by himself (interpreting Mt. 19:12 literally); recognized three-fold understandings of the Scripture, literal, moral and allegorical; well-known by his allegorical interpretation of the Bible; advocated Subordinationism, Christ and Holy Spirit is subordinate to God; was opposed by his Bishop in Alexandria but was supported by Bishops of Caesarea and Aelia; was imprisoned and suffered prolonged torture during the persecution of Decius; posthumously anathematized at Fifth Ecumenical Council in 533 for his teachings, including origin of the soul and universalism; greatly admired by Cappadocian Fathers; probably the most prolific Christian writer among Church Fathers (about 2000 works, including commentaries on almost every book of the Scripture, hundreds of homilies and production by dictation); probably no one, except the apostle Paul, have more influential than Origen on Christian thought 




Commonitorium, Historia adversus Paganos

a historian from Spain; his view of history in his Historia adversus Paganos followed Augustine’s view in De Civitate Dei  




Rules (for the monks)

founder of coenobitic monasticism; established a monastery at Tabennisi near Nile in c320; as abbot-general over nine monasteries before death

Pacian of Barcelona



Epistles, Paraenesis ad Poenitentiam

Bishop of Barcelona; opposed Novatianism; his famous epigram, “My name is Christian; my family name is Catholic”

Palladius of Helenopolis



Dialogue, Historia Lausiaca

Bishop of Helenopolis in Bithynia; Evagrius Ponticus’s student; supported John Chysostom and thus was exiled in 406; was accused by Jerome of Origenism; his work Historia Lausiaca (dedicated to Lausus) provides important information of early monasticism; 

Pamphilus of Caesarea



Apology for Origen

Origen’s disciple and Pierius’s student; a leader of a theological school at Caesarea; a martyr under the persecution of Maximinus Daza





converted to Christianity from Stoicism; a leader of a Catechetical school at Alexandria; Clement of Alexandria’s teacher; a pioneer of spiritual interpretation of the Scripture  




Expositions of the Oracles of the Lord (Aogi,wn Kuriakw/n VExhgh,seij)

Bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor; his work Expositions of the Oracles of the Lord describes the Gospel of Matthew written in Hebrew and the Gospel of Mark faithfully recording the preaching of St Peter but not in good order; upheld materialistic view of Millennium




Confession, Epistles

Apostle of the Irish; born in Britain; captured by Irish pirates at the age of 16 and became a slave (a herdsman) in Ireland for 6 years; escaped from captivity by Divine help; became a Bishop around 432 and then went to Ireland and spent the rest of life evangelizing and educating the Irish 

Paulinus of Nola



Epistles, Poems

Bishop of Nola; served as governor of Campania while still a young man; converted to Christianity and went to North Spain; began giving their fortune to the poor after the death of his only son and lived a life of continence; was acquainted with Martin of Tours, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine; his poetic works, like Prudentius’s, as the foremost Christian Latin poet

Peter Chrysologus



Epistles, Homilies

Bishop of Ravenna (433-454); wrote a letter to Eutyches in 499 to ask him to submit to the Roman see and to its orthodoxy; was named “Chrysologus (golden-worded)” as a counterpart of “Chrysostom (golden-mouthed)”; Doctor of the Church

Peter of Alexandria




Bishop of Alexandria (300-311); survived the persecution of Diocletian and then declared a moderate policy regarding the readmission to the Church of those who had lapsed in persecution; this policy provoked Melitius’s schism; his work shows opposing Origenism; was beheaded in the persecution of Maximin; Eusebius name him “a model Bishop”

Philip of Side



Christian History (Cristianikh. ~Istori,a)

a deacon ordained by Chrysostom and then became a priest; wrote Christian History depicting events from the creation to his times; wrote a defense against Julian the apostate

Philoxenus of Mabbug



Commentaries, Discourses on the Christian Life, Epistles

Bishop of Mabbug (Hierapolis) from 485; a monophysite; like his contemporary Severus of Antioch, as a leading thinkers in Syrian Orthodox Church; initiated a new translation of the Bible; was exiled on the accession of Justin I




Epistles to Philippians  

Apostolic Father; Bishop of Smyrna; an important  Christian figure who links the Apostolic Age with the time of Apostolic Fathers; critically opposed Marcionites and Valentinians; have conversations with the Apostle John and those who had seen Jesus; his letters shows a significant acquaintance with the New Testament, particularly the Pastoral Epistles; went to Rome to discuss with the Bishop which resulted in an agreement that each church could maintain its own custom and that church in Asia could continue the Qartodeciman practice; during a public pagan festival, was arrested around the age of 86 because of refusal to recant his faith; Martyrium Polycarpi, written by his church, recorded his trial and martyrdom (first by burning and then by dragger) as well as the first Christian account of martyrdom and the earliest witness to the Christian practice of having meal for the dead, especially the martyrs  

Proclus of Constantinople



Epistles, Homilies (Tome of St Proclus)

Bishop of Constantinople (434-446); as a priest, opposed Nestorius by a sermon on the Theotokos in the presence of Nestorius in c428 which was eventually placed in the acts of the Council of Ephesus (431); his Tome described one Christ in two natures and condemned Theodore of Mopsuestia’s view; the traditional formula that “One of the trinity was crucified according to the flesh” has been ascribed to him

Prosper of Aquitaine



Carmen de Ingratis (a hexameter poem), Chronicle, Epistles

opposed Semipelagianism; his letter to Augustine shows that his teaching followed Augustine’s doctrines of grace and predestination but was opposed by John Cassian’s adherents; by his exposition, Augustinian doctrines was transmitted into the Council of Orange (529); made a great influence on the Carolingian theologians

Quadratus of Athens




the earliest Christian apologist who wrote in Asia Minor an apology addressed to emperor Hadrian in c124; his apology testified the continuing testimony of those who were healed and raised from death by Jesus




De Tempore Barbarico, Epistles, Homilies

Bishop of Cartage (c437-); while as a deacon at Cartage, he wrote two letters regarding heresies to Augustine who responded with his work De Haeresibus (but Augustine did not complete this work before death); was expelled from the Bishop see when the city was captured by Gaiseric; died in exile   




Epistles, Hymns

Bishop of Edessa (412-435); opposed Nestorianism and Theodore of Mopsuestia; the leader in the Syrian Church; ally of Cyril of Alexandria and translated Cyril’s Christological work into the Christian community of Edessa which previously linked to the teachings Theodore of Mopsuestia (the teaching against Cyril’s Christology); wrote rules for the life of monks and clergy

Romanus (Romanos) Melodus




the most important composer of Kontakia (metric sermons chanted to music); his Kontakia works, such as On the Nativity and On the Resurrection, are regarded as a masterpiece of world literature

Rufinus, Tyrannius (of Aquileia)



Apologies (on Origenism),  Commentary on Apostles’ Creed, Translation Works

Jerome’s friend; a monk; a student of Didymus the Blind at Alexandria who taught him Origenism; established with Melania the Elder a monastery on the Mount of Olivers; was significant in translating Greek theological works into Latin, including the works of Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Eusebius; his translation of Origen’s De Principiis is the only complete text among survived texts; supported Origenism

Salvian of Marseilles



Ad Ecclesiam, De Gubernatione Dei, Epistles  

a priest; wrote treatise Ad Ecclesiam to the Church for a plea of almsgiving; under the circumstance of the barbarian invasions, wrote De Gubernatione Dei as a justification of divine providence




Hymns, Paschale Carmen, Paschale Opus

a priest; a Christian Latin poet; his poems were popular in the Middle Ages;

Severian of Gabala




Bishop of Gabala; strongly opposed John Chrysostom; played a leading role in the Synod of Oak (403) for deposing John Chrysostom; his sermons were wide circulated  

Severus of Antioch



Homilies, Epistles

a monk; became Bishop of Antioch in 512 when Flavian was deposed; a leader of the moderate monophysites; was deposed on the accession of the orthodox emperor Justin I (518) because of his monophysite position; was excommunicated by a Constantinopolitan synod in 528  

Sidonius Apollinaris



Epistles, Poems

a statesman in Rome; still a layman, was elected as Bishop of Clermont and then distributed his wealth in charities; was exiled when Goths occupied the city in 475, but was reinstated in c476; his poems and epistles are an important source for the history of Gaul  

Socrates Scholasticus



Church History

a lawyer and a Greek Church historian; wrote Church History which was designed to continue Eusebius’s work and covers the year 306-349 and which was highly regarded by modern historians; his work also shows a sympathy with the Novatianists 




Homilies, Poems

Bishop of Jerusalem (634-639); a monk; the chief opponent of monothelitism, which was supported by Cyrus of Alexandria and emperor Heraclius




Historia Ecclesiastica

wrote Historia Ecclesiastica, which covers the year 325-425; though his work has better literary style than Socrates Scholasticus, his failure to cite his sources made him less regard by modern historians

Sulpicius Severus



Chronicorum, Dialogues, Epistles, Uita sancti Martini Turonensis

disciple and biographer of Martin of Tours; Paulinus of Nola’s friend and Martin if Tours’s disciple; lived in an ascetic life; a priest; his Uita sancti Martini Turonensis made great influence on later hagiography; wrote Chronicorum in classical style which cover the period from creation to 400 and which gives an important information about Priscillian 

Synesius of Cyrene



De Insomniis, Epistles, Hymns

Bishop of Ptolemais (410-414); defended the city against Berber invasion; accepted to become a Bishop with the condition of keeping his wife and his philosophical beliefs which he have learned from Alexandria Neoplatonist Philosopher Pypatia; most his works appear more philosophical ideas than Christian ones




Diatessaron, On Morals, On Perfection according to the Savior, Oratio ad Graecos

had Greek rhetoric and philosophy education before conversion to Christianity in the middle of 2nd century; Justin’s student; became a Greek apologist and rigorist; established the ascetic sect of the Encratities which opposed marriage and eating meat; creator of Diatessaron, the edition of the four Gospels in a continuous and harmonious narratives, which was used in Syriac Church as the standard text of Gospels until the 5th century and then was replaced by the four separate Gospels or by the Peshitta version in the area which considered Titian as a heretic  




Ad Nationes, Adversus Marcionem, Adversus Praxeam, Adversus Valentinianos, Apologeticum, De Anima, De Fuga in Persecutione, De Ieiunio Adversus Psychicos, De Resurrectione Carnis (Mortuorum), Scorpiace  

had a good education in literature and rhetoric; a layer; was converted to Christianity before 197; joined the Montanist sect; his apologetic works pleaded for the toleration of Christianity; declared that Christians were not dangerous to the state but good and useful citizens who live in a high moral standard of life; his famous saying that the blood of martyrs is the seed of the Church; probably the editor of Passio Sanctarum Perpetuae et Felicitatis; in his early works, claimed that the one true Church alone has authority of interpreting Scripture; opposed Marcion; made a great influence on the formula of the doctrine of Trinity (Economic Trinity) in Christian tradition; his work De Anima prompted Traducianism which become a dominant belief in Latin theology through Augustine; opposed philosophy as a tool of truth or Christian faith; accepted Montanist ideas of eschatology, immediacy of the Spirit, prophecy, ecstasy; asceticism, and the holiness of the Church; The first Latin Father and the Father of Latin theology  

Theodore of Mopsuestia



Commentaries, Controversy with the Macedonians, Homilies

Bishop of Mopsuestia (392-428); entered the monastic school of Diodore of Tarsus at Antioch with John Chrysostom; following Diodore of Tarsus’s teaching, opposed Alexandria allegorical interpretation of Scripture, and used historical and literal approaches; opposed Arians and Apollinarians and supported the orthodoxy of the Council of Constantinople (381); was condemned at the Council of Ephesus (431) as well as the Second Council of Constantinople (553) when Justinian tried to appease the monophysites 

Theodoret of Cyrus



Commentaries, Compendium of Heretical Fables, Epistles, Eranistes, Graecarum Affectionum Curatio, Historis Ecclesiastica, Religious History  

Bishop of Cyrus (423-); distributed his wealth to the poor and entered a monastery at Nicerte in c416; wrote Historis Ecclesiastica which continues Eusebius’s work down to 428; supporter of Nestorius and opponent of Cyril of Alexandria; opposed monophysites; a leading figure of two-nature Christology (Antioch School’s Christology); argued a duality in Christ-- the unconfused co-existence of Divine and human natures in Christ; was accused of dividing Christ into Two Sons in 488 by Dioscorus, Cyril’s successor; the Council of Latrocinium (Robber Council) at Ephesus (449) deposed him; reluctantly anathematized Nestorius in the Council of Chalcedon (451) and then reinstated his see; his works against Cyril of Alexandria was anathematized by the Council of Constantinople (553)




Explanation of the Creed of Necaea, Sermons, Six Books against Nestorius (lost),

Bishop of Ancyra; support Cyril of Alexandria’s Christology at the Council of Ephesus (431); was condemned at the Council of Tarsus (432) 

Theophilus of Antioch



Against Marcion, Against the Heresy of Hermogenes, Apology

Bishop of Antioch; wrote Apology addressed to Autolycus; developed the doctrine of Logos beyond any of his predecessors; the first theologian to use the term “triad (tria,j)” for God, His Word, and His Wisdom; opposed Marcion and Hermogenes




Commentaries, Liber Regularum

a donatist theologian whom Augustine of Hippo regarded highly; though affiliated in African Donatist Church, opposed his fellow’s views and argued that the Church composed of both good and bad Christians; wrote Liber Regularum which provides seven rules for interpreting Scripture and which was included in Augustine’s De Doctinea Christiana; his exegetic works were commonly quoted and used by medieval commentators, such as Primasius and Bede 

Valerian of Cemele (Cimiez)




Bishop of Cemele in Gaul; inclined to Semipelagianism

Venantius Fortunatus



De Excidio Theoingiae, Hymns, Pange Lingua Gloriosi, Poems, Vexilla Regis

Bishop of Poitier; pilgrimage to St Martin of Tour’s shrine in gratitude for the cure of his eye-illness was cured; a priest in Poitier; Gregory of Tour encouraged him to publish his poetry; wrote lives of several saints, including Martin of Tour and Hilary of Poitier; was regarded as the first of the medieval poets

Victor of Capua




Bishop of Capua (541-); wrote a harmony of the Gospels which was based the Vulgate text and was preserved in Codex Fuldensis 

Victorinus of Pettau



Commentaries, Excerpta  

Bishop of Pettau in Pannonia; the earliest known exegete to write in Latin; follower of Origen; a martyr probably under the persecution of Diocletian; his works were condemned the Decretum Gelasianum because of his millenarianism tendency  

Vincent of Lérins




a monk on the island of Lérins; opposed Augustinianism and supported Semipelagianism; his work Commonitorium made great influence, was multiplied through many translations, and provided a threefold formula to avoid heretic teaching: authoritative interpretation of Scripture by the Church, and the complementary authority of general Councils     

Zeno of Verona




Bishop of Verona (c362-c380); opposed Arianism; active in almsgiving and concern for the poor; his sermons show the influence of Tertullian, Cyprian, and Lactantius as well as Virgil; was represented with a fish in art



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